Tonsil Microbiome among Obstructive Sleep Apnea Children across Intermittent Hypoxemia and Body Weight Status
The tonsil microbiome is associated with chronic tonsillitis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children, and the gut microbiome is associated with host weight status. In this study, we hypothesized that weight status may be associated with clinical profiles and the tonsil microbiome in children with OSA. We prospectively enrolled 33 non-healthy-weight (cases) and 33 healthy-weight (controls) pediatric OSA patients matched by the proportion of chronic tonsillitis. Differences in the tonsil microbiome between the non-healthy-weight and healthy-weight subgroups and relation- ships between the tonsil microbiome and clinical variables were investigated. Non-healthy weight was associated with significant intermittent hypoxemia (oxygen desaturation index, mean blood saturation (SpO2), and minimal SpO2) and higher systolic blood pressure percentile, but was not related to the tonsil microbiome. However, chronic tonsillitis was related to Acidobacteria in the non-healthy-weight subgroup, and oxygen desaturation index was associated with Bacteroidetes in the healthy-weight subgroup. In post hoc analysis, the children with mean SpO2 ≤ 97% had reduced α and β diversities and a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes than those with mean SpO2 > 97%. These preliminary findings are novel and provide insights into future research to understand the pathogenesis of the disease and develop personalized treatments for pediatric OSA.